HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE

RESEARCH PAPER

• Getting ready with data
• First draft
• Structure of a scientific paper
• Selecting a journal
• Submission
• Revision and galley proof

Getting ready with data Getting ready with data

Gather all important data, analyses, plots and tables
Organize results so that they follow a logical sequence (this may
or may not be in the order of experiments conducted)
Consolidate data plots and create figures for the manuscript
(Limit the number of total figures (6-8 is usually a good number).
Include additional data, multimedia in the Supporting Information.)
Discuss the data with your advisor and note down important
points

First draft First draft

Identify two or three important findings emerging from the
experiments. Make them the central theme of the article.
Note good and bad writing styles in the literature. Some are simple
and easy to follow, some are just too complex.
Note the readership of the journal that you are considering to
publish your work
Prepare figures, schemes and tables in a professional manner
(Pay attention to quantification of data accuracy, significant digits,
error bars,)

Structure of a scientific paper Structure of a scientific paper
Title
Abstract
TOC Graphics
Introduction
Experimental Section
(Some papers require this section to be at the end)
Results and Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgments
References
Supporting Information

Title
Compose a title that is simple, attractive and accurately reflects the
investigation
-Phrases to avoid: Investigation, Study, Novel, Facile etc.
- Avoid Acronyms that are known only to specialized community

Large Aggregated Ions Found in Some Protic Ionic Liquids
Danielle F. Kennedy and Calum J. Drummond
J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 113 (17), pp 5690–5693

Large aggregated parent ions, for example, C8A7+ (C = cation and A =
anion), have been observed within some protic ionic liquids (PILs) using
electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). We have shown that
the formation and size of aggregates is dependent on the nature of the anion
and cation. Solvent structuring in select PILs through aggregation can
contribute to their classification as “poor ionic liquids” and can also strongly

influence the entropic component to the free energy of amphiphile self-
assembly in select PILs.

Keep it simple and informative

Abstract

Introduction
• Start the section with a general background of the topic.
• Add 2-3 paragraphs that discuss previous work.
• Point out issues that are being addressed in the present work.
Experimental Section
• Divide this section into Materials & Methods, Characterization,
Measurements and Data analysis

Results and Discussion
(These two sections can be combined or separate)
• Describe the results in detail and include a healthy, detailed
discussion
• The order of figures should follow the discussion themes and not
the sequence they were conducted
• Discuss how your data compare or contrast with previous results.
• Include schemes, photographs to enhance the scope of discussion
Avoid
• Excessive presentation of data/results without any discussion
• Citing every argument with a published work
Structure

Conclusions
Include major findings followed by brief discussion on future
perspectives and/or application of present work to other disciplines.
Important: Do not rewrite the abstract.
Statements with “Investigated” or “Studied” are not conclusions!

Acknowledgments
Remember to thank the funding agency and
Colleagues/scientists/technicians who might have provided assistance
References
The styles vary for different journals. (Use ENDNOTE, RefWorks)
Some journals require complete titles of the cited references
Please check for the accuracy of all citations
Supporting Information
Include methods, analysis, blank experiments, additional data
Structure

Selecting a journal Selecting a journal

Each journal specializes in a specific area of research. Hence its
readership varies. A proper choice of journal can make a larger
impact of your research.
Get to know the focus and readership of the journal that you are
considering. - general vs. specialized area journal
Select 2 or 3 journals in the chosen area with relatively high impact
factors. Discuss with your advisor and decide on the journal
Find out the journal’s submission criteria and format